CRIMINAL PROCEDURE—APPEALS, NEW TRIALS AND WRITS OF ERROR
Appeals and postconviction relief in criminal cases.
Ch. 974 Cross-reference
See definitions in s. 967.02
Misdemeanor appeals. 974.01(1)(1)
Appeals in misdemeanor cases are to the court of appeals.
In lieu of a transcript on appeal, the oral proceedings may be presented in an agreed statement signed by all the parties to the appeal. This shall be a condensed statement in narrative form of all of the portions of the oral proceedings as are necessary to determination of the question on appeal.
History: 1971 c. 298
; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 W (2d) 585, 784 (1975); 1977 c. 187
The disposition made under 161.47, with probation without entering a judgment of guilt, is not appealable to the circuit court, because there is no judgment. State v. Ryback, 64 W (2d) 574, 219 NW (2d) 263.
Appeals and postconviction relief in criminal cases. 974.02(1)(1)
A motion for postconviction relief other than under s. 974.06
by the defendant in a criminal case shall be made in the time and manner provided in ss. 809.30
. An appeal by the defendant in a criminal case from a judgment of conviction or from an order denying a postconviction motion or from both shall be taken in the time and manner provided in ss. 808.04 (3)
. An appeal of an order or judgment on habeas corpus remanding to custody a prisoner committed for trial under s. 970.03
shall be taken under ss. 808.03 (2)
, with notice to the attorney general and the district attorney and opportunity for them to be heard.
An appellant is not required to file a postconviction motion in the trial court prior to an appeal if the grounds are sufficiency of the evidence or issues previously raised.
Judicial Council Note, 1983: Sub. (1) is amended to repeal provisions relating to appeals under ch. 48, 51 or 55 cases. Those provisions have been relocated in their respective chapters for ease of reference. The subsection is also amended to clearly establish the time for bringing a postconviction motion other than under s. 974.06 and the manner for proceeding and the appeal times from a judgment of conviction, order denying a postconviction motion or both. Reference in sub. (1) to s. 809.30 is changed to s. 809.50 because the latter statute prescribes appropriate procedures for discretionary appeals while the former does not. [Bill 151-S]
Where post-trial motions are not justified by prejudicial error or required in the interest of justice, counsel appointed to defend an indigent is to be commended for not prolonging the case. Schwamb v. State, 46 W (2d) 1, 173 NW (2d) 666.
Recantation of the accomplice who had testified for the state (by affidavit subsequently executed) stating that his testimony had been perjurious did not constitute grounds for a new trial where uncorroborated by any other newly discovered evidence, and especially had no legal significance in light of positive identification of defendant by the victim as well as another eyewitness. Nicholas v. State, 49 W (2d) 683, 183 NW (2d) 11.
A motion for a new trial is a motion for the retrial of issues and is not an appropriate remedy for one convicted on a guilty plea; however, such a motion may be deemed a motion for leave to withdraw a plea of guilty and for a trial, and in such a case the trial court has inherent power to hear the motion. State v. Stuart, 50 W (2d) 66, 183 NW (2d) 155.
Tests for the granting of a new trial in the interest of justice discussed. State v. Chabonian, 50 W (2d) 574, 185 NW (2d) 289.
Acceptance of the guilty plea could not be validated by argument that defendant's acts were within the proscriptions of the charged statute or that defendant did in fact understand the charge, for the court has a duty to fulfill the Ernst requirements on the record, and such knowledge cannot be imputed to the defendant from defendant's other statements or by recourse to the preliminary transcript where defendant never testified as to his knowledge of the charge or his understanding of the crime. McAllister v. State, 54 W (2d) 224, 194 NW (2d) 639.
A motion for a new trial on newly discovered evidence need not be granted where the evidence consists of the affidavits of 2 girls, one of which says that the crime was committed by someone else in their presence, and the other affidavit stating that both girls were frequently intoxicated and that affiant has no recollection of the alleged facts. Swonger v. State, 54 W (2d) 468, 195 NW (2d) 598.
Newly discovered evidence does not include newly discovered importance of evidence previously known and not used. Vara v. State, 56 W (2d) 390, 202 NW (2d) 10.
While a motion for a new trial is directed to the discretion of the trial court and its order granting one will be affirmed unless there is an abuse of discretion, that rule is subject to the qualification that when the court has proceeded on an erroneous view of the law, that amounts to an abuse of discretion, which is also a ground for reversal. State v. Mills, 62 W (2d) 186, 214 NW (2d) 456.
Even claim of constitutional right will be deemed waived unless timely raised in trial court. Maclin v. State, 92 W (2d) 323, 284 NW (2d) 661 (1979).
Prerequisite to claim on appeal of ineffective trial representation is preservation of trial counsel's testimony at hearing in which representation is challenged. State v. Machner, 92 W (2d) 797, 285 NW (2d) 905 (Ct. App. 1979).
A defendant's escape during the pendency of post-conviction motions constituted a forfeiture of of the relief sought and dismissal of the motion with prejudice was appropriate. State v. Braun, 185 W (2d) 153, 516 NW (2d) 740 (1994).
A new trial based on new evidence may be granted only if it meets the 5 point test enumerated in this case. In addition where the evidence is a recantation by a witness, the recantation must be sufficiently corroborated by other newly discovered evidence. State v. Terrance J.W. 202 NW (2d) 497, 550 NW (2d) 445 (Ct. App. 1996).
By moving for new trial, defendant does not waive right to acquittal based on insufficiency of evidence. Burks v. United States, 437 US 1 (1978).
Failure to petition state supreme court for review precluded federal habeas corpus relief. Carter v. Gagnon, 495 F Supp. 878 (1980).
Postconviction remedies in the 1970's. Eisenberg, 56 MLR 69.
Confusion in the court-Wisconsin's harmless error rule in criminal appeals. 63 MLR 641 (1980).
The duties of trial counsel after conviction. Eisenberg, 1975 WBB No. 2.
Within the time period specified by s. 808.04 (4)
and in the manner provided for civil appeals under chs. 808
, an appeal may be taken by the state from any:
Final order or judgment adverse to the state, whether following a trial or a plea of guilty or no contest, if the appeal would not be prohibited by constitutional protections against double jeopardy.
Judgment and sentence or order of probation not authorized by law.
Order or judgment the substantive effect of which results in:
If the defendant appeals or prosecutes a writ of error, the state may move to review rulings of which it complains, as provided by s. 809.10 (2) (b)
Permission of the trial court is not required for the state to appeal, but the district attorney shall serve notice of such appeal or of the procurement of a writ of error upon the defendant or the defendant's attorney.
History: 1971 c. 298
; Sup. Ct. Order, 67 W (2d) 585, 784 (1975); 1977 c. 187
; 1983 a. 219
; 1991 a. 39
; 1993 a. 486
Where the state appeals from an order suppressing evidence the defendant can ask for a review of another part of the order, although he could not appeal directly. State v. Beals, 52 W (2d) 599, 191 NW (2d) 221.
The fact that the state can appeal from an order suppressing evidence, but the defendant cannot, does not show a denial of equal protection of the law. State v. Withers, 61 W (2d) 37, 211 NW (2d) 456.
The granting of a motion to withdraw a guilty plea is a final order appealable by the state. State v. Bagnall, 61 W (2d) 297, 212 NW (2d) 122.
The trial court's setting aside of a jury finding of defendant's guilt in exhibiting an obscene film preview contrary to 944.21, and its dismissal of the information, was not appealable by the state because it was a final judgment adverse to the state made after jeopardy had attached, and jeopardy was not waived; hence the judgment was not within those situations from which a state appeal is authorized by this section. State v. Detco, Inc. 66 W (2d) 95, 223 NW (2d) 859.
Trial court's order specifying conditions of incarceration was neither judgment nor sentence under (1) (c). State v. Gibbons, 71 W (2d) 94, 237 NW (2d) 33.
Under 808.03 (2), both prosecution and defense may seek permissive appeal of nonfinal orders. State v. Rabe, 96 W (2d) 48, 291 NW (2d) 809 (1980).
Sub. (1) (d) 2 authorized state to appeal order suppressing defendant's oral statements. State v. Mendoza, 96 W (2d) 106, 291 NW (2d) 478 (1980).
Sub. (2) does not confine right of cross-appeal to final judgments or orders. State v. Alles, 106 W (2d) 368, 316 NW (2d) 378 (1982).
State may appeal as matter of right any pretrial order barring admission of evidence which might "normally" determine success of prosecution's case. State v. Eichman, 155 W (2d) 552, 456 NW (2d) 143 (1990).
Postconviction procedure. 974.06(1)
After the time for appeal or postconviction remedy provided in s. 974.02
has expired, a prisoner in custody under sentence of a court or a person convicted and placed with a volunteers in probation program under s. 973.11
claiming the right to be released upon the ground that the sentence was imposed in violation of the U.S. constitution
or the constitution or laws of this state, that the court was without jurisdiction to impose such sentence, or that the sentence was in excess of the maximum authorized by law or is otherwise subject to collateral attack, may move the court which imposed the sentence to vacate, set aside or correct the sentence.
A motion for such relief is a part of the original criminal action, is not a separate proceeding and may be made at any time. The supreme court may prescribe the form of the motion.
Unless the motion and the files and records of the action conclusively show that the person is entitled to no relief, the court shall:
Cause a copy of the notice to be served upon the district attorney who shall file a written response within the time prescribed by the court.
If it appears that counsel is necessary and if the defendant claims or appears to be indigent, refer the person to the state public defender for an indigency determination and appointment of counsel under ch. 977
Determine the issues and make findings of fact and conclusions of law. If the court finds that the judgment was rendered without jurisdiction, or that the sentence imposed was not authorized by law or is otherwise open to collateral attack, or that there has been such a denial or infringement of the constitutional rights of the person as to render the judgment vulnerable to collateral attack, the court shall vacate and set the judgment aside and shall discharge the person or resentence him or her or grant a new trial or correct the sentence as may appear appropriate.
All grounds for relief available to a person under this section must be raised in his or her original, supplemental or amended motion. Any ground finally adjudicated or not so raised, or knowingly, voluntarily and intelligently waived in the proceeding that resulted in the conviction or sentence or in any other proceeding the person has taken to secure relief may not be the basis for a subsequent motion, unless the court finds a ground for relief asserted which for sufficient reason was not asserted or was inadequately raised in the original, supplemental or amended motion.
A court may entertain and determine such motion without requiring the production of the prisoner at the hearing. The motion may be heard under s. 807.13
Proceedings under this section shall be considered civil in nature, and the burden of proof shall be upon the person.
An appeal may be taken from the order entered on the motion as from a final judgment.
A petition for a writ of habeas corpus or an action seeking that remedy in behalf of a person who is authorized to apply for relief by motion under this section shall not be entertained if it appears that the applicant has failed to apply for relief, by motion, to the court which sentenced the person, or that the court has denied the person relief, unless it also appears that the remedy by motion is inadequate or ineffective to test the legality of his or her detention.
History: 1971 c. 40
; 1977 c. 29
; 1981 c. 289
; Sup. Ct. Order, 141 W (2d) xiii (1987); 1991 a. 253
Judicial Council Note, 1981: Sub. (8) has been amended to reflect the fact that habeas corpus relief is now available in an ordinary action in circuit court. See s. 781.01, stats., and the note thereto and s. 809.51, stats. [Bill 613-A]
Judicial Council Note, 1988: Sub. (5) is amended to allow post-conviction motions under this section to be heard by telephone conference. [Re Order effective Jan. 1, 1988]
Plea bargaining as a basis for withdrawal of guilty plea and a new trial discussed. State v. Wolfe, 46 W (2d) 478, 175 NW (2d) 216.