Water quality and quantity; specific regulations. 281.17(1)(1)
No wells shall be constructed, installed or operated to withdraw water from underground sources for any purpose where the capacity and rate of withdrawal of all wells on one property is in excess of 100,000 gallons a day without first obtaining the approval of the department. If s. 281.35
applies to the proposed construction, the application shall comply with s. 281.35 (5) (a)
. If the department finds that the proposed withdrawal will adversely affect or reduce the availability of water to any public utility in furnishing water to or for the public or does not meet the grounds for approval specified under s. 281.35 (5) (d)
, if applicable, it shall either withhold its approval or grant a limited approval under which it imposes such conditions as to location, depth, pumping capacity, rate of flow and ultimate use so that the water supply of any public utility engaged in furnishing water to or for the public will not be impaired and the withdrawal will conform to the requirements of s. 281.35
, if applicable. The department shall require each person issued an approval under this subsection to report that person's volume and rate of withdrawal, as defined under s. 281.35 (1) (m)
, and that person's volume and rate of water loss, as defined under s. 281.35 (1) (L)
, if any, in the form and at the times specified by the department. The department may issue general or special orders it considers necessary to ensure prompt and effective administration of this subsection.
The department shall supervise chemical treatment of waters for the suppression of algae, aquatic weeds, swimmers' itch and other nuisance-producing plants and organisms. It may purchase equipment and may make a charge for the use of the same and for materials furnished, together with a per diem charge for any services performed in such work. The charge shall be sufficient to reimburse the department for the use of the equipment, the actual cost of materials furnished, and the actual cost of the services rendered.
The department shall promulgate rules establishing an examining program for the certification of operators of water systems, wastewater treatment plants and septage servicing vehicles operated under a license issued under s. 281.48 (3)
, setting such standards as the department finds necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter and chs. 285
, including requirements for continuing education. The department may charge applicants a fee for certification. All moneys collected under this subsection for the certification of operators of water systems, wastewater treatment plants and septage servicing vehicles shall be credited to the appropriation under s. 20.370 (4) (bL)
. No person may operate a water systems, wastewater treatment plant or septage servicing vehicle without a valid certificate issued under this subsection. The department may suspend or revoke a certificate issued under this subsection for a violation of any statute or rule relating to the operation of a water system or wastewater treatment plant or to septage servicing, for failure to fulfill the continuing education requirements or as provided under s. 145.245 (3)
. The owner of any wastewater treatment plant shall be, or shall employ, an operator certified under this subsection who shall be responsible for plant operations, unless the department by rule provides otherwise. In this subsection, "wastewater treatment plant" means a system or plant used to treat industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater or any combination of industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater.
The department may prohibit the installation or use of septic tanks in any area of the state where the department finds that the use of septic tanks would impair water quality. The department shall prescribe alternate methods for waste treatment and disposal in such prohibited areas.
On and after December 31, 1965, the sale and use of nondegradable detergents containing alkyl benzene sulfonate is prohibited in this state.
Discharge of mercury compounds and metallic mercury into the waters of this state by any person shall be limited to fifteen-hundredths of a pound of mercury per day averaged over a 30-day period, and not more than one-half pound in any one day. The department may establish lower maximum discharge limits by rule.
The department may establish, administer and maintain a safe drinking water program no less stringent than the requirements of the safe drinking water act, 42 USC 300f
The department may require owners of water systems to demonstrate the technical, managerial and financial capacity to comply with national primary drinking water regulations under 42 USC 300g-1
and may assist owners of water systems to develop that capacity.
Madison's power to forbid chemical treatment of Madison lakes was withdrawn by s. 144.025 (2) (i) [now 281.17 (2)]. Wis. Environmental Decade, Inc. v. DNR, 85 W (2d) 518, 271 NW (2d) 69 (1978).
A municipality has no jurisdiction over chemical treatment of waters to suppress aquatic nuisances. The department is granted statewide supervision over aquatic nuisance control under s. 144.025 (2) (i) [now 281.17 (2)]. Applications for permits to chemically treat aquatic nuisances under s. 144.025 (2) (i) may be denied even though statutory and regulatory requirements have been met if such chemical treatment would be counter-productive in achieving the goals set out in s. 144.025 (1). 63 Atty. Gen. 260.
The department may issue general orders, and adopt rules applicable throughout the state for the construction, installation, use and operation of practicable and available systems, methods and means for preventing and abating pollution of the waters of the state. Such general orders and rules shall be issued only after an opportunity to be heard thereon has been afforded to interested parties.
The department may issue special orders directing particular owners to remedy violations of the safe drinking water program under s. 281.17 (8)
or to secure such operating results toward the control of pollution of the waters of the state as the department prescribes, within a specified time. Pending efforts to comply with any order, the department may permit continuance of operations on such conditions as it prescribes. If any owner cannot comply with an order within the time specified, the owner may, before the date set in the order, petition the department to modify the order. The department may modify the order, specifying in writing the reasons therefor. If any order is not complied with within the time period specified, the department shall immediately notify the attorney general of this fact. After receiving the notice, the attorney general shall commence an action under s. 299.95
NOTE: Par. (a) is shown as affected by two acts of the 1997 legislature and as merged by the revisor under s. 13.93 (2) (c).
The department may issue temporary emergency orders without prior hearing when the department determines that the protection of the public health necessitates such immediate action. Such emergency orders shall take effect at such time as the department determines. As soon as is practicable, the department shall hold a public hearing after which it may modify or rescind the temporary emergency order or issue a special order under par. (a)
The department shall make investigations and inspections to insure compliance with any general or special order or rule which it issues. In the exercise of this power the department may require the submission and approval of plans for the installation of systems and devices for handling, treating or disposing of any wastes.
The department may, under s. 254.59
, order or cause the abatement of any nuisance affecting the waters of the state.
If the department finds that a system or plant tends to create a nuisance or menace to health or comfort, it shall order the owner or the person in charge to secure such operating results as the department prescribes, within a specified time. If the order is not complied with, the department may order designated changes in operation, and if necessary, alterations or extension to the system or plant, or a new system or plant. If the department finds that the absence of a municipal system or plant tends to create a nuisance or menace to health or comfort, it may order the city, village, town or town sanitary district embracing the area where such conditions exist to prepare and file complete plans of a corrective system as provided by s. 281.41
, and to construct such system within a specified time.
Orders issued by the department shall be signed by the person designated by the board.
In cases of noncompliance with any order issued under sub. (2)
or s. 281.20 (1)
, the department may take the action directed by the order, and collect the costs thereof from the owner to whom the order was directed. The department shall have all the necessary powers needed to carry out this subsection including powers granted municipalities under ss. 66.076
. It shall also be eligible for financial assistance under ss. 281.55
Any owner or other person in interest may secure a review of the necessity for and reasonableness of any order of the department under this section or s. 281.20
in the following manner:
They shall first file with the department a verified petition setting forth specifically the modification or change desired in such order. Such petition must be filed within 60 days of the issuance of the orders sought to be reviewed. Upon receipt of such a petition the department shall order a public hearing thereon and make such further investigations as it shall deem advisable. Pending such review and hearing, the department may suspend such orders under terms and conditions to be fixed by the department on application of any such petitioner. The department shall affirm, repeal or change the order in question within 60 days after the close of the hearing on the petition.
The determination of the department shall be subject to review as provided in ch. 227
History: 1995 a. 227
; 1997 a. 27
; s. 13.93 (2) (c).
Department is authorized, not required, to set standards for sewer extension approvals and may process sewer extension applications on a case by case basis under s. 144.025 (2) (c) [now s. 281.19 (1)]. Wis. Environmental Decade v. DNR, 82 W (2d) 97, 260 NW (2d) 674.
The department of natural resources has the authority to order a municipality to construct a public water supply, upon a finding that the absence of a public water supply constitutes a nuisance or menace to health or comfort, even though the electors of the municipality voted against construction in a referendum. 60 Atty. Gen. 523.
Orders; nonpoint source pollution. 281.20(1)
Under the procedure specified in sub. (3)
, the department may do any of the following:
Order or cause the abatement of pollution which the department, in consultation with the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection if the source is agricultural, has determined to be significant and caused by a nonpoint source, as defined in s. 281.65 (2) (b)
, including pollution which causes the violation of a water quality standard, pollution which significantly impairs aquatic habitat or organisms, pollution which restricts navigation due to sedimentation, pollution which is deleterious to human health or pollution which otherwise significantly impairs water quality, except that under this paragraph the department may not order or cause the abatement of any pollution caused primarily by animal waste or of pollution from an agricultural source that is located in a priority watershed or priority lake area unless the source is designated as a critical site in a priority watershed or priority lake plan under s. 281.65 (5m)
or a modification to such a plan under s. 281.65 (5s)
If it provided notice under s. 281.65 (5w)
, order the owner or operator of a source that is designated as a critical site in a priority watershed or priority lake plan under s. 281.65 (5m)
or in a modification to such a plan under s. 281.65 (5s)
to implement best management practices, but not with respect to any pollution caused primarily by animal waste.
If the department determines that it is authorized to issue an order under sub. (1) (a)
to abate pollution caused by a nonpoint source, the department shall send a written notice of intent to issue the order to abate the pollution to the person whom the department determines to be responsible for the nonpoint source.
If the department determines under sub. (1) (b)
that an owner or operator is required to implement best management practices in a priority watershed or priority lake area, the department shall send a written notice of intent to issue an order to implement the designated best management practices to the owner or operator.
The notice of intent to issue an order shall describe the department's findings and intent, and shall include a date by which that person is required to abate the pollution or implement the best management practices. That date shall be at least one year after the date of the notice unless the department determines that the pollution is causing or will cause severe water quality degradation that could be mitigated or prevented by abatement action taken in less than one year. In its determination under this subsection, the department shall consider the nature of the actual or potential damage caused by the pollution and the feasibility of measures to abate that pollution.
If the nonpoint source that is the subject of a notice under par. (a)
is agricultural, the department shall send the notice to the land conservation committee created under s. 92.06
of any county in which the source is located. If the notice is issued under par. (a) 2.
, the land conservation committee may disapprove issuance of an order within 60 days after the department issues the notice of intent to issue the order.
If the nonpoint source which is the subject of a notice under par. (a)
is agricultural, the department shall send the notice to the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection. The department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection shall do all of the following:
Upon receipt of the notice and in cooperation with the land conservation committee, provide to the person whom the department has determined to be responsible for the nonpoint source under sub. (1) (a)
a listing of management practices which, if followed, would reduce pollution to an amount determined to be acceptable by the department, in consultation with either the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection or the land conservation committee. The list shall, with reasonable limits, set forth all of the options which are available to the person to reduce pollution to that amount of pollution. The department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection shall provide to each person receiving a notice an explanation of financial aids and technical assistance which may be available to the person for the abatement of pollution or the implementation of best management practices from the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection under s. 92.14
and from other sources.
Issue a report to the department within one year after the date of the notice describing the actions taken by the person receiving the notice and a recommendation as to whether the department should issue an order to abate the pollution or implement the best management practices. Notwithstanding par. (a)
, the department may not issue an order until the department receives that report unless the department determines that the pollution is causing or will cause severe water quality degradation which could be mitigated or prevented by abatement action taken in less than one year and unless the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection files a concurring determination in writing with the department within 30 days after receiving notice of the department's determination.
The department may issue a temporary emergency order prior to issuing a notice under par. (a)
if all of the following apply:
The department determines that the pollution is causing or will cause severe water quality degradation.
The abatement action required by the order does not involve a capital expenditure.
If the nonpoint source is agricultural, the department provides a copy of the temporary emergency order to the department of agriculture, trade and consumer protection and to the land conservation committee created under s. 92.06
in every county in which the nonpoint source is located.
As soon as practicable after issuing the temporary emergency order, the department issues a written notice of intent to issue an order under pars. (a)
or rescinds the temporary emergency order.
Except as provided in par. (c)
, if the department issues a notice under sub. (3) (a) 2.
, the source is agricultural and no land conservation committee disapproves the proposed order under sub. (3) (b)
, the owner or operator of the critical site may obtain a review of the proposed order by filing a written request with the land and water conservation board within 60 days after the expiration of the time limit under sub. (3) (b)
. If the land conservation committee of any county in which a source is located disapproves of a proposed order under sub. (3) (b)
, the department may obtain a review of that disapproval by filing a written request with the land and water conservation board within 60 days after receiving the decision of the land conservation committee.
The owner or operator of a critical site may request a contested case hearing under ch. 227
to review the decision of the land and water conservation board under par. (a)
by filing a written request with the department within 60 days after receiving an adverse decision of the land and water conservation board.
The owner or operator of a critical site who obtains review of the critical site determination under any or all of the review procedures in s. 281.65 (7)
may not obtain review of a proposed order under this subsection.
History: 1995 a. 227
Fees for water quality determinations for wetlands. 281.22(1)(1)
Amount of fees.
The department shall charge a fee for determining whether a project complies with the standards of water quality promulgated by rule under s. 281.15
that are applicable to wetlands. The fee for each project shall be $100.
The department shall refund the fee if the applicant requests a refund before the department determines that the application for the determination is complete. The department may not refund a fee after the department determines that the application is complete.
If the applicant applies for a permit after the project is begun or after it is completed, the department shall charge an amount equal to twice the amount of the fee that it would have charged under this section.
If more than one fee under this section or s. 30.28 (2) (a)
or 31.39 (2) (a)
is applicable to a project, the department shall charge only the highest fee of those that are applicable.
The department, by rule, may increase the fee specified in sub. (1)
The department, by rule, may charge a supplemental fee for a determination under sub. (1)
that is in addition to the fee charged under sub. (1)
if all of the following apply:
The applicant requests in writing that the determination be issued within a time period that is shorter than the time limit promulgated under par. (b)
for the determination.
The department verifies that it will be able to comply with the request.
If the department promulgates a rule under par. (a)
, the rule shall contain for a time limit for making determinations under sub. (1)
This section does not apply to any federal agency or state agency.
History: 1995 a. 27
; 1995 a. 227
; Stats. 1995 s. 281.22; 1997 a. 27
WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY;
Navigable waters protection law. 281.31(1)
To aid in the fulfillment of the state's role as trustee of its navigable waters and to promote public health, safety, convenience and general welfare, it is declared to be in the public interest to make studies, establish policies, make plans and authorize municipal shoreland zoning regulations for the efficient use, conservation, development and protection of this state's water resources. The regulations shall relate to lands under, abutting or lying close to navigable waters. The purposes of the regulations shall be to further the maintenance of safe and healthful conditions; prevent and control water pollution; protect spawning grounds, fish and aquatic life; control building sites, placement of structure and land uses and reserve shore cover and natural beauty.
In this section, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:
"Municipality" or "municipal" means a county, village or city.
"Navigable water" or "navigable waters" means Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, all natural inland lakes within this state and all streams, ponds, sloughs, flowages and other waters within the territorial limits of this state, including the Wisconsin portion of boundary waters, which are navigable under the laws of this state.
"Regulation" means ordinances enacted under ss. 59.692
, 62.23 (7)
and refers to subdivision and zoning regulations which include control of uses of lands under, abutting or lying close to navigable waters for the purposes specified in sub. (1)
, pursuant to any of the zoning and subdivision control powers delegated by law to cities, villages and counties.
"Water resources," where the term is used in reference to studies, plans, collection of publications on water and inquiries about water, means all water whether in the air, on the earth's surface or under the earth's surface. "Water resources" as used in connection with the regulatory functions under this section means navigable waters.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law or administrative rule, a shoreland zoning ordinance required under s. 59.692
, a construction site erosion control and storm water management zoning ordinance authorized under s. 59.693
or a wetland zoning ordinance required under s. 61.351
does not apply to lands adjacent to farm drainage ditches if:
Such lands are not adjacent to a natural navigable stream or river;
Those parts of the drainage ditches adjacent to these lands were nonnavigable streams before ditching; and
Such lands are maintained in nonstructural agricultural use.
The department shall coordinate the activities of the several state agencies in managing and regulating water resources.
The department shall make studies, establish policies and make plans for the efficient use, conservation, development and protection of the state's water resources and:
On the basis of these studies and plans make recommendations to existing state agencies relative to their water resource activities.
Locate and maintain information relating to the state's water resources. The department shall collect pertinent data available from state, regional and federal agencies, the university of Wisconsin, local units of government and other sources.
Serve as a clearinghouse for information relating to water resources including referring citizens and local units of government to the appropriate sources for advice and assistance in connection with particular water use problems.
The department shall prepare a comprehensive plan as a guide for the application of municipal ordinances regulating navigable waters and their shorelands as defined in this section for the preventive control of pollution. The plan shall be based on a use classification of navigable waters and their shorelands throughout the state or within counties and shall be governed by the following general standards: