If the crime committed under sub. (1)
is a felony, the maximum fine prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than $5,000 and the maximum period of imprisonment prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than 5 years.
This section provides for the enhancement of the penalties applicable for the underlying crime. The court shall direct that the trier of fact find a special verdict as to all of the issues specified in sub. (1)
This section does not apply to any crime if proof of race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry or proof of any person's perception or belief regarding another's race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry is required for a conviction for that crime.
History: 1987 a. 348
; 1991 a. 291
"Hate crimes" law, 939.645, does not unconstitutionally infringe upon free speech. State v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476
, 124 LEd 2d 436 (1993), 178 W (2d) 597, 504 NW (2d) 610 (1993).
HateCrimes: New Limits on the Scope of the 1st Amendment. Resler. 77 MLR 415 (1993).
Talking about Hate Speech: A Rhetorical Analysis of American and Canadian Regulation of Hate Speech. Moran. 1994 WLR 1425.
Hate Crimes. Kassel. Wis. Law. Oct. 1992.
Penalty; crimes committed using information obtained from the sex offender registry.
If a person commits a crime using information that was disclosed to him or her under s. 301.46
, the penalties may be increased as follows:
In case of a misdemeanor, the maximum fine prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than $1,000 and the maximum term of imprisonment prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than 6 months. This subsection does not change the status of the crime from a misdemeanor to a felony.
In case of a felony, the maximum term of imprisonment prescribed by law for the crime may be increased by not more than 5 years.
History: 1995 a. 440
Penalty; terrorism. 939.648(1)(1)
In this section, "governmental unit" means the United States; the state; any county, city, village or town; or any political subdivision, department, division, board or agency of the United States, the state or any county, city, village or town.
If a person does all of the following, the penalties for the underlying felony are increased as provided in sub. (3)
Commits the felony under any of the following circumstances:
The person causes bodily harm, great bodily harm or death to another.
The person causes damage to the property of another and the total property damaged is reduced in value by $25,000 or more. For the purposes of this subdivision, property is reduced in value by the amount that it would cost either to repair or replace it, whichever is less.
The person uses force or violence or the threat of force or violence.
Commits the felony with the intent to influence the policy of a governmental unit or to punish a governmental unit for a prior policy decision.
The maximum fine prescribed by law for the felony may be increased by not more than $50,000 and the maximum period of imprisonment prescribed by law for the felony may be increased by not more than 10 years.
This section provides for the enhancement of the penalties applicable for the underlying felony. The court shall direct that the trier of fact find a special verdict as to all of the issues specified in sub. (2)
In this subsection, "labor dispute" includes any controversy concerning terms, tenure or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of employment, regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employe.
This section does not apply to conduct arising out of or in connection with a labor dispute.
History: 1993 a. 98
RIGHTS OF THE PROSECUTION.
Prosecution under more than one section permitted.
Except as provided in s. 948.025 (3)
, if an act forms the basis for a crime punishable under more than one statutory provision, prosecution may proceed under any or all such provisions.
History: 1993 a. 227
See note to Art. I, sec. 8, citing Harris v. State, 78 W (2d) 357, 254 NW (2d) 291.
Conviction of included crime permitted.
Upon prosecution for a crime, the actor may be convicted of either the crime charged or an included crime, but not both. An included crime may be any of the following:
A crime which does not require proof of any fact in addition to those which must be proved for the crime charged.
A crime which is a less serious type of criminal homicide than the one charged.
A crime which is a less serious or equally serious type of battery than the one charged.
A crime which is a less serious type of violation under s. 943.23
than the one charged.
A crime which is the same as the crime charged except that it requires recklessness or negligence while the crime charged requires a criminal intent.
An attempt in violation of s. 939.32
to commit the crime charged.
A crime of failure to timely pay child support under s. 948.22 (3)
when the crime charged is failure to pay child support for more than 120 days under s. 948.22 (2)
The crime of attempted battery when the crime charged is sexual assault, sexual assault of a child, robbery, mayhem or aggravated battery or an attempt to commit any of them.
A crime that is a less serious type of violation under s. 940.285
than the one charged.
A crime that is a less serious type of violation under s. 940.295
than the one charged.
Controlling principles as to when a lesser included offense charge should be given discussed. State v. Melvin, 49 W (2d) 246, 181 NW (2d) 490.
Attempted battery can only be an included crime as to the specific offenses listed. State v. Melvin, 49 W (2d) 246, 181 NW (2d) 490.
A charge of possession of a pistol by a minor is not an included crime in a charge of attempted first degree murder because it includes the element of minority which the greater crime does not. State v. Melvin, 49 W (2d) 246, 181 NW (2d) 490.
Disorderly conduct is not a lesser included offense on a charge of criminal damage to property. State v. Chacon, 50 W (2d) 73, 183 NW (2d) 84.
While attempted aggravated battery is not an included crime of aggravated battery under (1), it is under (4). The reduced charge does not put defendant in double jeopardy. Dunn v. State, 55 W (2d) 192, 197 NW (2d) 749.
Under sub. (1) the emphasis is on the proof, not the pleading, and the "stricken word test" stated in Eastway v. State, 189 W 56, is not incorporated in the statute. Martin v. State, 57 W (2d) 499, 204 NW (2d) 499.
Section 947.015 is not an included crime in 941.30. State v. Van Ark, 62 W (2d) 155, 215 NW (2d) 41.
Where the evidence overwhelmingly reveals that the shooting was intentional, failure to include 940.06 and 940.08 as lesser included offenses not error. Hayzes v. State, 64 W (2d) 189, 218 NW (2d) 717.
In order to justify the submission of an instruction on a lesser degree of homicide than that with which defendant is charged there must be a reasonable basis in the evidence for acquittal on the greater charge and for conviction on the lesser charge. A defendant charged with 1st-degree murder is not entitled to an instruction as to 3rd-degree murder unless the evidence reasonably viewed could lead to acquittal on both 1st- and 2nd-degree murder. Harris v. State, 68 W (2d) 436, 228 NW (2d) 645.
For one crime to be included in another, it must be utterly impossible to commit greater crime without committing lesser. Randolph v. State, 83 W (2d) 630, 266 NW (2d) 334 (1978).
Test under (1) concerns legal, statutorily defined elements of the crime, not peculiar facts of case. State v. Verhasselt, 83 W (2d) 647, 266 NW (2d) 342 (1978).
Trial court erred in denying defendant's request for submission of verdict of endangering safety by conduct regardless of life as lesser included offense of attempted murder. Hawthorne v. State, 99 W (2d) 673, 299 NW (2d) 866 (1981).
See note to Art. I, sec. 8, citing State v. Gordon, 111 W (2d) 133, 330 NW (2d) 564 (1983).
Where defendant charged with 2nd degree murder denied firing fatal shot, manslaughter instruction was properly denied. State v. Sarabia, 118 W (2d) 655, 348 NW (2d) 527 (1984).
See note to 940.19, citing State v. Richards, 123 W (2d) 1, 365 NW (2d) 7 (1985).
See note to Art. I, sec. 8, citing State v. Stevens, 123 W (2d) 303, 367 NW (2d) 788 (1985).
Crime of reckless use of weapons under s. 941.20 (1) (a), 1983 stats., is not lesser included offense of crime of endangering safety by conduct regardless of life while armed under ss. 939.63 (1) (a) 3. and 941.30, 1983 stats. State v. Carrington, 134 W (2d) 260, 397 NW (2d) 484 (1986).
Court must instruct jury on properly requested lesser offense even though statute of limitations bars court from entering conviction on lesser offense. State v. Muentner, 138 W (2d) 374, 406 NW (2d) 415 (1987).
See note to 808.09, citing State v. Myers, 158 W (2d) 356, 461 NW (2d) 777 (1990).
Convictions for both first-degree murder and burglary/battery are permissible. State v. Kuntz, 160 W (2d) 722, 467 NW (2d) 531 (1991).
Evidence at trial may suggest to the state that an instruction on a lesser included offense is appropriate; it is unreasonable for a defendant to assume at the outset of trial that evidence may not affect the state's prosecuting position. State v. Fleming, 181 W (2d) 546, 510 NW (2d) 837 (Ct. App. 1993).
Multiple Punishment in Wisconsin and the Wolske Decision: Is It Desirable to Permit Two Homicide Convictions for Causing a Single Death? 1990 WLR 553.
See also notes to Art. I, sec. 8, Double Jeopardy.
RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED.
Presumption of innocence and burden of proof.
No provision of chs. 939
shall be construed as changing the existing law with respect to presumption of innocence or burden of proof.
History: 1979 c. 89
; 1987 a. 332
Limitation on the number of convictions.
If an act forms the basis for a crime punishable under more than one statutory provision of this state or under a statutory provision of this state and the laws of another jurisdiction, a conviction or acquittal on the merits under one provision bars a subsequent prosecution under the other provision unless each provision requires proof of a fact for conviction which the other does not require.
No conviction of both inchoate and completed crime.
A person shall not be convicted under both:
(2) Section 939.31
for conspiracy and s. 939.05
as a party to a crime which is the objective of the conspiracy; or
(3) Section 939.32
for attempt and the section defining the completed crime.
History: 1991 a. 153
Sub. (3) does not bar convictions for murder and attempted murder where defendant shot at one but killed another. Austin v. State, 86 W (2d) 213, 271 NW (2d) 668 (1978).
Sub. (3) does not bar convictions for possession of burglarious tools and burglary arising out of single transaction. Dumas v. State, 90 W (2d) 518, 280 NW (2d) 310 (Ct. App. 1979).
Criminal penalty permitted only on conviction.
A penalty for the commission of a crime may be imposed only after the actor has been duly convicted in a court of competent jurisdiction.
Time limitations on prosecutions. 939.74(1)
Except as provided in sub. (2)
, and s. 946.88 (1)
, prosecution for a felony must be commenced within 6 years and prosecution for a misdemeanor or for adultery within 3 years after the commission thereof. Within the meaning of this section, a prosecution has commenced when a warrant or summons is issued, an indictment is found, or an information is filed.
Notwithstanding that the time limitation under sub. (1)
A prosecution for theft against one who obtained possession of the property lawfully and subsequently misappropriated it may be commenced within one year after discovery of the loss by the aggrieved party, but in no case shall this provision extend the time limitation in sub. (1)
by more than 5 years.
A prosecution for violation of s. 948.025
may be commenced within the time period specified in sub. (1)
or by the time the victim reaches the age of 25 years, whichever is later.
In computing the time limited by this section, the time during which the actor was not publicly a resident within this state or during which a prosecution against the actor for the same act was pending shall not be included. A prosecution is pending when a warrant or a summons has been issued, an indictment has been found, or an information has been filed.